In the first half of the thirteenth century, the Mongol Empire was established under the leadership of Genghis Khan, and Mongol rule was established over a wide area of China, North Asia, Central Asia, the Middle East and Russia. In 1223, Genghis Khan's troops defeated the combined forces of the Russians at the Battle of the Kalka River, and in 1236–1240, Genghis Khan's grandson Batu Khan occupied all of Russia and turned the Russian states into a Mongol tributary.For the next 240 years, Russian territory was ruled by the Mongol-dominated Golden Horde Empire. After the Battle of the Ugra River in 1470, Russia gained independence from the Mongols.
To the Russians, the Mongols were known as the 'Tatars', and in Russian history the Mongol period was known as the 'Mongol-Tatar yoke'. This long reign was a chapter of indescribable misery for Russia, or more precisely, for the Russian people.
During and after the Russian occupation in 1237–1240, the Mongols inflicted indescribable oppression on the Russian people. Genocide, rape, looting, arson - these were an integral part of the Mongol war. There was a proverb among Russian peasants about the brutality of the Mongols, 'Wherever the Tatars go, the place becomes a desert'!
Even after gaining independence from the Mongol-controlled Golden Horde, the Russians did not escape the oppression of the Mongols.The descendants of Genghis Khan ruled Crimea, Astrakhan, Kazan, Bukhara, Khiva, Khokanda and Kunduz after the break-up of the Mongol Empire, and as such they can be termed as Mongol (or from the Russian point of view, Tatar) states. Russia was in conflict with these Mongol / Tatar states until the nineteenth century. Often these states invaded Russia's border provinces and carried out indiscriminate killings, rapes, and looting in the nature of the Mongol war.Moreover, they captured millions of Russian men and women and sold them into slavery. This bitter experience with the Mongols caused a strong 'Yellow Peril' among the Russians. Note that the people of the nation are part of the Mongoloid race, the so-called 'yellow race' (yellow race).
The world-famous French writer Jules Verne has written a thrilling novel, Michel Strogoff, based on the Russians' 'yellow panic'. Written in French, the novel is published in English as Michael Strogoff: The Courier of the Tsar and in Russian as Mikhail Strogov. Published in 18, the novel has been described by literary critics as one of Jules Verne's "best works of literature."This novel by Jules Verne, known as a pioneer in the field of science fiction, is not a science fiction, although a scientific subject known as the 'Leidenfrost Effect' occupies an important place in this novel.
In the last half of the nineteenth century, the Mongol-ruled states of Central Asia (Bukhara, Khiva, Khokand and Kunduz) formed an anti-Russian alliance led by Amir Feufar Khan of Bukhara. At the instigation of these states, the Kazakhs, divided into Russian-controlled 'large', 'medium' and 'small' hoards, revolted against Russia and joined the armies of the Mongol-ruled states. This combined Mongol-led force invaded Siberia and advanced to occupy large areas of Asian Russia.
Mongol-led forces crossed the Kazakh steppe, defeated a small number of Russian troops, captured Semipalatinsk, and advanced to Lake Balkhash.
When news of the Kazakh uprising and the invasion of Siberia by Mongol-led forces reached Moscow, the Russian emperor was at a ceremony at the Moscow Kremlin.He learned through intelligence that former Russian colonel Ivan Ograv had joined the Mongol-led forces and that Central Asian states had carried out the attack with his encouragement. Ogarav was ousted by the Russian emperor's brother, Grand Duke, for his involvement in anti-government activities while in the army.